FAQ – frequently asked questions about biogas
1. What is biogas?
Biogas is a product of the splitting of organic matter with anaerobic bacteria. On average, biogas consists of 60% methane and 40% carbon dioxide. It is similar to natural gas, which is 99% consist of methane. Biogas – a clean and renewable energy that can replace natural gas for cooking and steam production, hot water or electricity. At atmospheric pressure and temperature, biogas is in a gaseous state, rather than in liquid form as liquefied propane.
2. How does it work?
Organic raw materials are placed in a sealed reservoir – a heated methane tank and equipped with mixing devices. Under conditions of an oxygen-free environment, anaerobic bacteria reprocess the organic matter of the raw material with the release of biogas.
3. What kinds of waste can produce biogas?
Any kind of organic raw material has the potential of biogas production: crop and livestock waste products, food and processing industries, sugar factories, meat processing plants and slaughterhouses, brewing, etc.
Types of raw materials, with a high content of fibers, for example, wood, are complex and practically unsuitable for biogas production.
4. How much biogas can be obtained from waste from the company?
The amount of biogas that can be produced from organic raw materials depends primarily on the type of raw material and the methan tank constructions.
Some types of methane tanks can produce 20 m3 of biogas per ton of waste, while others can produce even 800 m3. It depends on the quality of the raw material, the design and construction of the methan tank and the proper exploitation of the biogas complex.
5. How is biogas generated?
In natural conditions, biogas is produced by anaerobic (without oxygen) splitting of organic raw materials in soils, swamps, oceans, etc. Also, biogas is formed at landfills of solid household waste (SHW), where organic waste decomposes in the absence of oxygen and under the influence of time, ambient temperature and microclimate of the landfill.
Also biogas can be produced in specially created conditions – hermetic methane tanks with appropriate equipment and mechanisms, complete control of the process and ensuring the full implementation of the potential of biogas production.
6. Is biogas safe for the environment?
The value of the greenhouse gas methane factor is 21 times more than CO2. The splitting of organic raw materials into biogas reduces the impact of greenhouse gases by 20 times.
Isolation of methane from organic raw materials and its subsequent transformation into electric and thermal energy allows to ensure that organic raw materials do not decompose in open space, and therefore, biogas production reduces direct methane emissions into the atmosphere.
In addition, biogas energy will most likely supplant fossil fuels, which are the main source of greenhouse gas emissions. Since the production of biogas produces carbon that corresponds to its natural cycle, energy from biogas is considered neutral to it.
7. How much energy is contained in biogas?
1 m3 of biogas contains an equivalent of 6 kWh of thermal energy. However, when converting biogas into cogeneration units, about 2 kWh of electricity is generated, the rest is converted into heat energy.
2 kW * h is enough to power 100 watts of lamp for 20 hours or 2000 watts of hair dryer for 1 hour.
8. What happens to raw materials after biogas production?
Despite the common opinion that the amount of input raw material to fermentation corresponds to the volume of raw material after it, the quality of the raw material improves (virtually no odor, improved fertilizer properties, reduced organic loading and degree of contamination).
The raw material can be divided into solid and liquid fractions, it can also be used as organic bio fertilizer for fields.
9. Why is it beneficial to produce biogas?
Utilization of waste from an enterprise always costs money. If utilization does not cost anything, then it’s probably about creating an environmental hazard.
Together with the construction of a biogas complex for the purpose of utilization of industrial waste, a potential profit center is being created at the same time.
For example, cattle manure is not considered to be a waste, but fertilizer on the farm. The Biogas Complex allows a farmer to benefit from the production of biogas, while reducing the level of odors and increasing the quality of organic fertilizers.
In the agro-industrial complex, the biogas complex can be used as the primary waste processing of a particular enterprise, and biogas – to compensate for some energy costs of the enterprise and reduce the amount of recycling of waste.
10. How much does biogas complex cost?
Biogas complexes come in various solutions, constructions and forms.
A simple biogas complex of agricultural type can cost from 2 500 € for 1 kW of electric power. A biogas plant for the recycling of municipal waste can cost up to 19,000 euros for 1 kW of installed electric capacity. This indicates a significant differentiation in the cost of projects.
The construction of biogas complexes requires significant investments that require careful planning in order to maximize the chances of success.
If fluctuations in energy prices affect the profitability of your business and you are environmentally responsible for the waste management generated by your company, then the biogas plant can be a solution for you on the path to sustainable development.
11. How long can a biogas complex be built?
As a rule, implementation of the biogas complex project takes up to 2 years.
12. Is biogas complex difficult to operate?
Biogas complex is like a pet. It must be fed daily, with appropriate food and in the right amount. And if you do not take care of the animal properly, it will hurt and bring bad results.